This page likely won't work without JavaScript enabled.CSS in SPAs

Organizing CSS in React and Vue

I've seen many logically organized front-end projects. When you combine several reusable components and a few page layouts with a router, a data store, an i18n plugin, authorization logic, and some API services, things start to get complex. Yet, orienting yourself in a repository you haven't seen before isn't too complicated. Until you need to understand how it's styled.

Organizing CSS in a way that follows any sort of conventional logic is difficult.


This is the CSS globally-available CSS that's imported at the start, in index.html, main.js or whatever your entry-point file is. For clarity, each section lives in its own .css file. Importing them all in one place clarifies order of priority.

import './assets/css/reset.css'
import './assets/css/utility.css'
import './assets/css/variables.css'
import './assets/css/material-ui.css'

Reset and normalize

Default browser styles vary: an unstyled <input> may look different in Chrome than in Safari. Before you apply your own styles, you'll want to make sure that it gets applied to a uniform base regardless of the user agent.

Library or framework CSS

I often work with a component library that requires its own stylesheets, especially if I want to make changes to their default theme.

Variables (custom properties)

Design advice for developers emphasizes consistency. Your project will benefit from keeping a few properties uniform. These include

  • sizes of margins, borders and padding
  • fonts: font family, font weight, font size etc.
  • colors
  • box shadows
  • border radiuses If the component library you use doesn't do it for you, define values for these and keep them limited.

For many projects 3-5 padding sizes, a couple box shadows and one border radius will suffice. The upshot is that instead of writing padding: 10px;font-weight: 700;background-color: rgb(245, 245, 245) every time you need one of these properties, you can say padding: var(--padding-2);font-weight: var(--bold);background-color: var(--grey-3);

Utility classes

Classes used in multiple places in your project, like a .screen-reader-only, should also be available globally.

I like to have a few categories of classes here:

  • display: .display-inline-block, .display-flex
  • flexbox: .justify-content-center, .align-items-flex-end
  • width and heigh: .width-100, .max-height-50vh This is similar to writing inline syles on your element and can take up space in your markdown files, but I find it preferable to inventing new class names only to use them for a couple of frequently adjusted properties. When the value of a class attribute on an element gets unbearably lengthy, it's time to give that element its own class.
<div class="display-flex flex-direction-column align-items-center width-100 max-width-40rem max-height-100"> ... </div>


<div class="card"> ... </div>
.card {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  align-items: center;
  width: 100%;
  max-width: 40rem;
  max-height: 100%;


Movement should be uniform across the animation. In React or Vue, you may be using a transition component that encapsulates the CSS it applies. If you need plain-CSS animations, the @keyframes should be defined in one place.


Vue's <style scoped> and React's styled-components are great ways of keeping CSS close to the markup they affect and avoiding cross-contamination. styled-components are themable through interpolating strings received via props

color: ${props =>};
border: ${props => props.theme.border.narrow} solid ${props => props.theme.colors.grey2};

Vue is limited to CSS custom properties, but in combination with state-dependent classes, it suffices for most use-cases.

JS-set styles

In the rare case that theming or dynamic classes aren't enough, I read from or write to a DOM node's style property. In hindsight, there's usually a better way to go about it, with the exception of third-party libraries that need to be moulded to fit a project's needs.

Order of properties

Some people sort their CSS alphabetically. I use an order that reflects my understanding of how impactful each property is. 1. position - this tripped me up enough times around z-index and layout issues to make it to the top of the list 2. width, height 3. display 4. margin, border, padding 5. font-related properties 6. everything else

Which results in something like

.navigation {
  position: relative;
  height: 6em;
  display: flex;
  padding: var(--padding-1);
  font-weight: var(--bold);
  background-color: var(--teal-lighter);

Notable mentions


Prepocessors like SCSS are great for readibility because they allow for nesting of classes

.button {
  background: var(--green-1);
  &:hover {
    background: var(--green-2);

Using a preprocessor makes most sense if you keep your variables in the preprocessor's own format, and not as CSS custom properties.


Scoping CSS to a component and, optionally, nesting CSS using a preprocessor achieves many of the same goals I would use BEM or OOCSS for. They are still a valuable reference for how to compose elements and their styles.